The following literature and resources in the field of colorism have been categorized by journal articles, books, case law, dissertations, films, plays, poetry, presentations, short stories, and websites.
Banks, T. L. (2000). Colorism: a darker shade of pale. UCLA L. Rev. 47(1705) Baynes, L.M. (1998).
Blinded by the light but now I see. New Eng. L. Rev. 491(20)1.
Bond, S., and Cash, T. F. (1992). Black beauty: skin color and body images among African
American college women. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22(11), 874888.
Charles, C.D. (2003). Skin Bleaching, SelfHate and Black Identity in Jamaica. Journal of Black Studies 33(6):711728.
Cunningham, J. L. (1997). Colored Existence: Racial Identity Formation in Lightskin
Blacks. Studies in Social Work 67(3):375400.
Edwards, O. (1973). Skin Color as a Variable in Racial Attitudes of Black Urbanites. Journal of Black Studies 3(4):473483.
Findley, R., Stephen, C. G., & Wheatley, R. (2004). Color discrimination: differentiate at
your peril. Journal of Individual Rights, 11(1), 3138.
Gullickson, A. (2005). The Significance of Color Declines: A Reanalysis of Skin Tone
Differentialsin PostCivil Rights America. Social Forces 84(1):157180.
Hall, R.E. (1992). Bias Among Africa Americans Regarding Skin Color: Implications for Social Work Practice. Research on Social Work Practice 2:479486.
Hall, R. E. (1995). The Bleaching Syndrome: African Americans' Response to Cultural
Domination visavis Skin Color. Journal of Black Studies 26: 172184.
Hall, R. E. (1998). Skin Color Bias: A New Perspective on an Old Problem. The Journal of
Discrimination in the New Millennium. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 32(7):15271537.
Hersch, J. (2006). SkinTone Effects Among African Americans: Perceptions and Reality.
American Economic Review 96(2):251255.
Hill, M. E. (2003). Color differences in the socioeconomic status of African American men:results of a 1461.
Hochschild, J. L. and Weaver, V. (2007). The Skin Color Paradox and the American Racial Order. Social 86(2):643670.
Hughes, M. and Hertel, B. (1990). The significance of color remains: a study of life chances, mateselection, 20.
Hughes, M. and B. Hertel. (1990). The Significance of Color Remains: A Study of Life Chances, Mate selection among Black Americans. Social Forces 68:11051120.
Hunter, M. (1998). Colorstruck: Skin Color Stratification in the Lives of African American Women. Sociological Inquiry 68(4):517535.
Hunter, M. (2002). If You’re Light You’re Alright’: Light Skin Color as Social Capital for Women ofColor. 193.
Hunter, M. (2007). The Persistent Problem of Colorism: Skin Tone, Status, and Inequality.Sociology Compass 1(1):237254.
Jones, T. (2000). Shades of Brown: The law of skin color. 49 Duke L. J. 18(2). 1487.
Jones, W.L. (1973). The Importance of Black Identity to the Black Adolescent. Journal of Black Studies 4(1):8191.
Keenan, K. L. (1996). Skin Tones and Physical Features of Blacks in Magazine Advertisements. Journalism Communication Quarterly 73:905912.
Keith, V. M. and Herring C. (1991). Skin tone and stratification in the Black community. American Journal of Sociology, 98(3), 760768.
Kerr, A. E. (2005). The Paper Bag Principle: Of the Myth and the Motion of Colorism. Journal of American Folklore 118 (469) 271289.
Nance, C. E. Colorable Claims: The Continuing Significance of Color Under Title VII Forty Years After Its Passage. Berkeley Journal of Employment & Labor Law.
Neal, A.M. and M.L. Wilson. (1989). The Role of Skin Color and Features in the Black Community: Implications for Black Women and Therapy. Clinical Psychology Review 9:323333.
Robinson, T.L. and J. V. Ward. (1995).African American Adolescents and Skin Color. Journal of Black Studies. 21:256274.
Seeman, M. (1946). Skin Color Values in Three All Negro School Classes. American
Sociological Review 11(3):315321.
Seltzer, R. and R. C. Smith. (1991). Color Differences in the Afro American Community and the Differences They Make. Journal of Black Studies 21:279286.
Thompson, M.S. and Keith, V.M. (2001). The blacker the berry: gender, skin tone, self-esteem, and self efficacy. Gender & Society 15 (3).
Turner, R. (1995). The color complex: intraracial discrimination in the workplace.
Labor Law Journal, 678684
Wade, T. J. (1996). The Relationships Between Skin Color and SelfPerceived
Global, Physical, and Sexual Attractiveness, for African Americans. Journal of Black Psychology 22(3):358373.
Ward, J.V. and T. L. Robinson.(1995). African American Adolescents and Skin Color. Journal of Black Psychology.
Culbreth, D., JungKim, J., Culbreth, A. E. (2014). Live Life Beautiful: Affirmations for Girls of Color. Maryland. Complexity Publishing.
Culbreth, D. (2014). Living Life Fabulous at Fifty: Affirmations for Women of Color. Maryland,
Drake, S. and Cayton, H. (1945). Black Metropolis. New York: Harcourt Brace.
Frazier, E. F. (1957). Black Bourgeoisie. Glencoe: Free Press.
Glenn, E.N. (Ed.). )2009). Shades of Difference: Why Skin Color Matters. Stanford: Stanford
Hall, R. E. (2005). An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Skin Color on AfricanAmerican
Education, Income, and Occupation. Lewiston, NY: E. Mellen Press.
Hall, R. E. (2008). (Ed.). Racism in the 21st Century: An Empirical Analysis of Skin Color. New York:
Haizlip. S. T. ( 1994). The Sweeter the Juice: A Family Memoir in Black and White. New York: Simon
Herring, C., V. Keith and H.D. Horton, (Eds.) (2004). Skin Deep: How Race and Complexion
Matter in the “ColorBlind” Era. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Hunter, M. (2005). Race, Gender, and the Politics of Skin Tone. New York: Routledge.
Kerr, A.E. (2006). The Paper Bag Principle: Class, Colorism, and Rumor in the Case ofBlack Washington, Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.
Lake, O. (2003). Blue Veins and Kinky Hair: Naming and Color Consciousness in African
America. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Morrison, T. (1970). The Bluest Eye. New York: Plume Books.
Myrdal, G. (1944). An American dilemma: The Negro problem and modern democracy. NewYork: Transaction Publishing.
Phillips, D. (2005). The Darkest Child: A Novel. New York: Soho Press.
Russell, K. Wilson, M. and Hall, R. (1993). The Color Complex: The Politics of Skin Color among African Americans. New York: Anchor Books.
Russell Cole K., Wilson, M. and Hall, R. (2013). The Color Complex (Revised):
The Politics of Skin Color in a New Millennium. Random House.
Styles, T. (2011). Love on the Mulberry Grove.
Thurman, W. (1929). The Blacker the Berry. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Allen v. Potten, Postmaster General, 152 Fed. Appx. 379 (2005).
Brack v. Captain D's, 249 F. Supp. 2d 938 (2003).
Bryant v Begin Manage Program, 281 F. Supp. 2d 561 (2003).
Burch v Applebees, Case No. 1:02CV829 (Ga. 2005).
EEOC v. Family Dollar Stores, Inc., No. 1:07cv06996 (N.D. Ill. settled Feb. 17, 2009).
EEOC v. Blockbuster, Inc., C.A. No. 1:07cv02221 (S.D.N.Y. filed settled Apr. 7, 2008
Hansborough v City of Elkhart Parks and Recreation Department, 802 F. Supp. 199, 206 (NDInd. 1992).
Morgan v Centers for New Horizons, Inc., WL 524441 (N.D. Ill.) (2004).
Porter v. Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Case No. 981152,
7th Cir. (1998).
Rios vs. Aramark Corp., 139 F.Supp.2d 210 (2001).
Sanders v University Of The District Of Columbia, No. 883614 SS (U.S. Dist., 1981).
Santiago v. Stryker Corp., 10 F Supp. 2d 93 (D.P. R. 1998).
Sere v. Board of Trustees, 628 F. Supp. 1543 (N.D. Ill. 1986).
Walker v. Secretary of the Treasury, 713 F. Supp. 403 (N.D. Ga. 1989).
Walker II, 953 F.2d 650 (11th Cir. 1992).
Alford, N. M. (1997). African American women's self-esteem as a function of skin color: a quasiqualitative study.
Banks, S. H. (2008). African American college students' perceptions of how skin tone bias is learned and how it affects perceived self-efficacy. Capella University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (230693173).
Berry, B. B. (1988). Black-on-black discrimination: The phenomenon of colorism among african Americans. Kent State University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. 164- 164 p. (303704592).
Bowens, K. L. (2006). African American Skin Tone Bias: An Examination of Patterns of
Attribution. Dissertation Abstracts International.
Breland, A. M. (1998). Airing Dirty Laundry: Reasons and Processes by Which Skin Tone
Stratification Continues to be a Pervasive Aspect of the African-American Community. Dissertation Abstracts International.
Charles, C. A. D. (2010). Representations of colorism in the Jamaican culture and the practice of skin bleaching. City University of New York). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, (305191501).
Chin-Quee, D.S. (1992). Impressions of the light, medium, ad dark-skinned: a portrait of racial and intraracial stereotypes. (Doctora dissertation, University of Virginia, 1992). (UMI No.: 9316915)
Culbreth, D. (2006). Employment discrimination in the 21st century: An empirical investigation of the presence of intraracial colorism among Black Americans in the workplace. Dissertation Abstracts International, 67 (07), 164A. (UMI No.3226798)
Dowtin, R. L. (2012). Beautiful bullies: Examining differences in relational aggression and self-esteem among preadolescent black girls of various skin tones and hair textures. Bowie State University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (1012124309).
Elmore, T. G. (2009). Colorism in the classroom: An exploration of adolescents' skin tone, skin tone preferences, perceptions of skin tone stigma and identity. University of Pennsylvania). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (304983676).
Expose, F. (2012). African americans and skin tone biases: A phenomenological study of lived experiences in corporate america. Capella University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (1027442275).
Ford, V. S. (2011). Color blocked: A rhetorical analysis of colorism and its impact on rap lyrics in hip hop music from 2005 to 2010. Howard University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (878545853).
Gorum, W. J. 1981. The Relationship between Skin Color and Self-Concept among University of Maryland Black Students. University of Mississippi.
Hodge, C. R. (2011). Coping with and contesting colorism in contemporary african american communities. California State University, Fullerton. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (873548611).
Jenkins, S. M. 1993. The Socially Constructed Meaning of Skin Color among Young Afrikan-
American Adults. University of Michigan.
Johnson, D. L. (1999). The Black corporate experience: perceptions of the impact of skin color and gender on Black professionals' success. (Doctoral dissertation, DePaul University, 1999). (UMI No.: 9943405)
Kerr, A. E. (1998). The Two Black Washingtons: the role of complexion in the oral history of
District of Columbia residents 1863-1963. University of Maryland.
Pearson-Trammell, N. (2010). Colorism, self-esteem, and resiliency: A qualitative study of dark skinned African American women. California Institute of Integral Studies. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (305238712).
Saunders, D. J. (2007). The effects of african american children's skin complexions in television commercials on the self-perception of african american children. Liberty University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (304714546).
Senices, J. (2006). Skin color and its relationship to hispanics' acculturation process. The Pennsylvania State University. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (305248913).
Shurn, N. Z. (2008). Skin color, ethnic identity achievement, and self esteem among african American adolescent males.Alliant International University, San Francisco Bay). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (304836129).
Sims, C. H. (2004). Perceptions of privilege and skin tone bias among African Americans in the workplace: Implications for diversity training. (Doctoral dissertation, Northern Illinois University). (UMI No.: 3146160)
Smith, T. M. (2010). Colorism and perceived sexual risk taking among african American adolescent girls: Where does racial socialization fit in this relationship? The University of North Carolina at Greensboro). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (366335786).
Smith, M. (2007). “The Blacker the Berry?: Colorism in African American Students’ Lives”. The University of Southern Mississippi.
Stephen, L. Y. (2008). The Black Tax: Skin Tone and Social Stratification in the United States.
Thomas, S. I. (2006). African american adolescent females: An investigation of racial identity, skin color, and self-concept during adolescent development. Kent State University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (305314626).
Turner, Wilbert, Jr. (2004). Blackie: The novel and the postscript. Ph.D. dissertation, State University of New York at Albany, United States -- New York. (Publication No. AAT 3138643).
Tyson, L. K. (2003). Intraracial discrimination: A look at the different hues of African- Americans. Dissertation. Dissertation Abstracts International. (UMI No. 3102552).
Watson, S. (2006). The relevance of skin tone: Viewers' responses to black models in
advertisements. Dissertation. Mississippi State University (Publication No.: 3227671).
Wilder, J. (2008). Everyday Colorism in the Lives of Young Black Women: Revisiting the Continuing Significance of an Old Phenomenon in a New Generation. Unpublished Dissertation, University of Florida.
Woodson, K.M. (2002). The Impact of Hair Texture and Skin Color among African American Men and Women During Mate Selection on the Expression of Risky Sexual Behaviors. Los Angeles: Alliant International University.
Band of Angels (1957)
Imitation of Life (1959)
School Daze (1988)
Culbreth, D. (2012). "Fired Up, Ready to Go."
Culbreth, D. (2012). Colorstruck
Orlandersmith, D. "Yellowman" (Pulitizer Prize nominated play)
Culbreth, D. (2012) Authentically Black
Culbreth, D. (2012) Can't You See
Culbreth, D. (2012) Colorism
Culbreth, D. (2012) Lacey Mack
Culbreth, D. (2012) Light Girl
Culbreth, D. (2012) My People
Hughes, L. ( ) Harlem Sweeties
JOURNAL OF COLORISM STUDIES (JOCS)
THE DYNAMICS OF COLORISM TALK RADIO